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Tuesday, 23 August 2011


Our Own Civilization

By    C.E.M.Joad

                                                                   Question  &  Answers

1Q.        How important are order and safety ?  Explain with examples.

                A common man always wants safety because he is not dare enough to challenge things. With out these two  things higher activities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization which would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization Order means the systematic way how things happens. It also shows the best management as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.

                If we  study history, order and safety were found only for a short duration. Might was right. There were wars, revolutions, battles, invasions and so on. The common men suffered a lot.  The savages made hell of earth. Many civilizations  viz., Babylonian, Assyrian came to an end because of their madness to topple others in power. The same similar fate was experience by the Greeks and the Romans.

                Today order and safety became the sole burden of the governments.  A law and order department is functioning to look after them. People became free from the fear of violence. Knowledge has become more powerful than muscle power.

2Q.        Why does the author think that the world is becoming a single place, instead of a lot of separate places shut off from one another ?

A             The science has brought many inventions. The inventions which have made man’s life comfortable, fast, sophisticated, and easy. The transportation systems are well developed. What was highly impossible once, became possible with modern transportation. Food of any corner of the world can be supplied to any corner of the world with in hours. Technology is exchanged. Any information of any country can be brought to the world through media within seconds. Volumes of knowledge can be sent to anyone with a click of mouse. The present job structure has become in such a way that one has to go to far off places, leaving one’s own country . Today international commuters are there.

                So today’s man cannot  confine himself to a town, or country. He has become a part and parcel of the international  activities.  The world is turning to be a global village. a single place.

3Q.        What are the defects of our civilization ?

A.            In democratic countries the Rule of law is same irrespective caste, creed, class, etc. But when it comes to sharing-out of food and clothing and houses, it is still very unfair.

                While some few people live in luxury, many have not even enough to eat and drink and wear. In the finest of the cities, this inequality is found high. Slum areas are everywhere.  Many people have to share a common room. A single room is used for all the purposes.

                Everyone is not getting a proper share of his necessary and delightful things.

                Man power is high, but there is no work to do. This diminishes the purchasing power of the common man. Once luxurious things became common commodities.

                If war breaks out anywhere, it soon spreads to the whole world and influences the market. Prices go up, scarcity is created, inflation goes up, and poor countries become helpless. The common man is severely effected.

                Today each is afraid of the other. This fear has made  many governments to spend great quantities of money in making terrible weapons, planes, and recruiting men and training them as soldiers.

                Man has learned to tap the hidden forces of our planet and  use them for his purposes. Unfortunately this knowledge is being utilized for own destruction purpose.
                The greatest success of man is to tap colossal forces locked up in the atom. Already that power was tested on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and millions of people were killed. Even after that still that mad race for nuclear weapons is still continuing.
                No World organization such as League of Nations or UNO could and can stop this race or this human annihilation.

4Q          What does being civilized mean ? 
A             Civilization does not mean how best we utilise machines, how luxuriously we live, and how best we utilise science. All these things aid us to enrich ourselves. The author feels that being civilized means,making and liking  beautiful things, thinking freely, and living rightly and maintaining justice equally among men. Today’s man has many chances of doing things in a better way than ever before.  The machines which he has made have created a lot of leisure. This time he can well utilise for the upliftment of the downtrodden, guiding the innocents, bringing up the orphans and anyother thing that relates to his fellow men. The more the present man is reasonable, transparent, committed, sypathetic, the more he is civilised.

5Q.         Why is it important to set up some form of world government ?
A.            Every second the population of the world is exploding. The  needs are ever increasing. Regionalisation is ever in demand. The gulf among nations is widening. The greater part of the world is like a big armed camp. A single match will set a hayrick ablaze, and with all this war material lying about, the world again like a hayrick waiting for that match.
                So it is high time to powerful nations to come forword, and guide and help the developing countries and unitedly strive for the prosperity of the world. So a type of world government is the need of the hour.

6Q.         Summary.

Language Work:

Antonyms:-   impossible x possible,     civilized x uncivilized,    limited x unlimited,     enormous x small
Advance x retreat,    terrible x  pleasant,   destruction x construction,   unfair x fair

Verb forms:-  tear – tore – torn,   hide – hid – hidden,   fight – fought – fought,   find – found – found
Fear – feared – feared,     remember – remembered – remembered,          civilise – civilised – civilised, 
 agree – agreed – agreed,   wash – washed – washed,   spread –spread – spread,   give – gave – given

2.           Andrew Carnegie
EH Carter

1Q.         What did Andre Carnegie learn from his parents ?
A.            Andrew Carnegie never for a moment forgot what he owed to his Scottish upbringing. Although poor, the Carnegie family were prominent citizens of Dunfermline, and Andrew’s  father was a keen Radical and Chartist. He was a reader and debator, and taught his sons to love books and to express their opinions. Mrs Carnegie was a devoted mother. “The child”, she wrote to Andrew in later years, ‘that has in his father a teacher, companion and counselor, and whose mother is to him a nurse, seamstress, governess, teacher, companion, heroine and saint all in one, has a heritage to which the child of wealth remains a stranger.’

2Q.         What made Carnegie’s life always full and interesting?
A.            He was very hardworking. He started with an unpleasant job in the boiler room of bobbin factory. He studied morse code. He joined railways. He did his job to the best praise of his superiors.
He was very enthusiastic and highly imaginative. He prepared a railway sleeping car. That became a great success.
He was very fast in making quick decisions, to take risks and to imagine future and to imagine future.
He was very enthusiastic for his work, and his will to get on. He combined a love of reading and an interest in public and social questions which made his life always full and interesting.

3Q.         Why was Carnegie a huge success as Steel King ?
                The rise of the steel industry was one of the great romances of the later nineteenth century.  The growth of railways would never have been possible without the new, strong, durable, cheap steel rails. Because of steel, transport became cheap.
                Under Carnegie’s guidance steel developed from ‘hothouse plant’ into the hardiest of growth. The utility of steel from machines, warships, wire, pipelines, bicycles, to enormous steel houses of skyscrapers. Steel has been utilized on a huge proportion all over the world.
                Carnegie invested all his amount in steel. He had iron mines and coal fields, private railways and docks. He never invested outside his own business. He never allowed his partners to do so. He had also a flair for choosing his assistants. He surrounded himself with young men of great ability. He knew how to use each man’s abilities to the best advantage.

4Q.         Did Carnegie become a wiser and more useful man?
                He became wiser and wiser. He used to say beyond certain limit never earn money. He advised people to spend to spend the surplus each year for benevolent purposes. He determined never to give way to the worship of money. He used to say that it was disgrace to die a rich man. According to his philosophy one should earn money in the first stage, then in the second stage it should be given out.
                For his contribution he chose scientific research, rather than hospitals. He preferred libraries, universities and schools rather than other forms of social work.
                He donated to establish public libraries.
He established Carnegie Trust for the Scottish Universities to help the poor students.
He founded Carnegie Institution in America for scientific research. He had Mt.Wilson Observatory, and helped every kind of scientific study.
He formed Carnegie Corporation both in America and in Great Britain. A lot of money was used to spend on education, libraries, organs, the work of peace, pensions for public men and many others.

5Q.         How did his ‘Gospel of Welath’ influence the modern world?
A             His ‘Gospel of Wealth’ has profoundly influenced them modern  world.
                His real ideals are his great assets.
                His example had staggered the business world, a great change took place in the attitude of many very rich business men. 
                Once he wrote to his friend, ”I estimate the value of your life not so much by the wealth you have attained, or even the distribution of it, as in the fact that the whole sentiment of mankind will be affected by the principles which you have laid down and which you are putting into practice.”


1Q.         Write your thoughts on achieving success in life.
A             There is no short cut to success except hard work.
                Success has many shareholders but failure has none.
                First of all what one wants, should be known to oneself. He should gather information and  material related to his subject. He should meet the connectors who can properly guide. Put heart and soul in his task and work incessantly till the goal is reached. To gain something one has to loose certain other things of less importance.
                Eg.          Kalpana Chavla put her life in her mission and became the astronaught.
                                Abdul put his heart and soul to make SLV 3 a success.
                Secondly the way of Andrew Carnegie who was ever ready to change his frame of  thinking and attitude to new things. Always be innovative.
                Thirdly one’s enthusiasm, innovative ideas can change one’s life and it becomes exemplary to others.
                Successful people are those who know what they want in life, and from  life.
The  tendency to learn from the failures is a greatest thinking.
                Eg. During Long March, Mao faced lot of failures. But he had never given up his
firmness  and persuation.

2Q.         Write about the ways in which people can help society.
                For a man who wants to serve his country need not be educated, need not be a millionaire, and need not have power.
                Acharya Vinobhabhave started bhoodanodhyamam and whatever land he got in the form of donation, he distributed it to the poor.
                Anna Hazare, who was a soldier started working for his village and became successful.
                Baba Amte, cured about one and a half lakh  leprosy patients. He proved that leprosy can be cured.
                Dr. Modi checked two lakh patients suffering from cataract. He did operate one and half lakh patients and brought light in their lives.
                The whole world knows about Mother Teresa and her services.
                To serve his fellowmen, one needs
 self sacrificing nature,
                definitge aim,
                                proper resources
                                                the zeal to serve,
                                                                and inspiration.

                We cannot definitely say that such and such way is the only way to serve the people.
                As Swami Vivekananda said, “ the world is need of many things. You take one problem, think it discuss it and dedicate your life to it…”
                So any one can help the society in whatever way he feels, wherever he feels, whenever he feels.

                                The Secret of Work
Swami Vivekananda
Question & Answers

1Q          When will misery come to an end ?
A             Misery of the world can never be put to an end. It can never be cured by physical help. It comes because of lack of knowledge to solve problems. The common man is always in need of items. He is full  of desires. Desire is never satisfied by the enjoyment of a desire. The moment one desire is fulfilled another desire takes birth. So no amount of physical help can remove the man from his miseries. The only solution to solve misery is to make him spiritually strong, and educated.
                One’s thinking should be well guided so that one can solve one’s own problem. Making people depending on others always never solve the misery. It is he, who himself has to solve his own problem. Why  the intensity of  severity of an issue is well understood by the sufferer rather than the adviser.
                Unless one’s character changes, any amount of physical help, charities, hospitals, financial aid etc., can save one from one’s own misery.
                So Swami Vivekananda preaches for man making, character building, self-depending, type of education. Unless one comes out of one’s own ignorant living,  one’s own self-pity,  and lead a  pragmatic life,  one can never overcome one’s own misery.
2Q          How is each man’s character determined ?
A             If money is lost, nothing is lost; if health is lost, something is lost; but if character is lost everything is lost.
                What we think and what we do, leaves an impression on mind stuff. These impressions are not obvious on the surface. The sum total of these impressions create a strong motive force which we call character. If the impressions are good, the character formed is good and if the impressions are bad, the character formed is bad.
                Some people mould themselves and form  such a strong character that no amount of outside force can change them. No body could dare enough to force Harishchandra to  tell lie. No body could alter the determination of Mother Theresa from doing her work.
                Indriyas are such that, they always provoke man to commit blunder. Anyone who keeps the indriyas  in his control can form a good character.  If indriyas dominate a  man he becomes a characterless person. One should always remember that ‘character is the crown of a man.’
3Q.         Explain the statement, “This world is not our habitation; it is only one of the many stages through which we are passing.”
A             According to Vedanta ‘jeeva’ takes birth and dies. This is cycle of birth and death, going on forever. Likewise many births and deaths  completed and have to be completed. We have taken  the birth of a human being because of our past ‘punyam’. In this birth we are here. In the last birth where we were, we donot know. In the next birth where we will be, we donot know. This is the meaning of pass ing through many stages. So utilize this birth in the best way and elevate your selves such that the ‘jeeva’ always goes to higher and higher stages of birth.                                     
4Q.         What was the teaching of Swami Vivekananda regarding work ?
A.            He  teaches that everyone should work. Work as if it is your religion of worship. Work with freedom. Work without bondage. Work without attachment. Work without expecting results. Selfish work is a slave’s work. The work that we do, inspired by love, brings us peace. In Geeta Krishna says that He too works every second. If He stops working, the whole universe will decay. He has nothing to gain from work. He says, He works because He loves the world.

The secret of work - 2

5Q.         How can one not be touched by sin ?
A.            Swami says that cowardice is sin. If anybody feels that he is weak is sin. He reminds us that in all of us resides that infinite atma which is  all pervading. Atma which is the manifestation  of god cannot be touched and contaminated by sin. God is truth. God is dharma. So never be afraid of sin.
                If  one works expecting something in return, will be in bondage. Bondage leads to attachment. Attachment leads to selfishness telling my wife, my children, my property, etc. This attachment makes one to do unwanted works which throw him in the abyss of sin. So the wise can understand that the root cause of sin is attachment. So work but non-attached. This makes one free from  sin.

Write summary.
Write all the questions together in sequence.

Language Work

1.         Give  Synonyms;
knowledge=       awareness, understanding misery= unhappiness, gloom, sadness                        cease =stop, finish, end            incessantly=continuously, constantly    bonage=oppression, slavery  obvious=clear, evident,      subdue=suppress, control, check            hinder= holdback, obstruct           impression= feeling, idea, thought                  completely=wholly, entirely, fully 

2.         Noun forms
Educate-education,  continue- continuous,  attach-attachment,  characterize-characterization   establish-establishment   hibernate-hibernation   happy-happiness   attain-attainment    assume-assumption selfish-selfishness

3.         Antonyms[opposite words]                                                                                                                                                                             
Human x inhuman   possible x impossible   resistible x irresistible   changeable x unchangeable   appear x disappear     attached x non-attached   affected x unaffected   justice x injustice   selfish x unselfish    like x dislike

4.         Matching
                c, d, e, a, b
5.            Fill in the blanks with prepositions.
                In,  from,  for,  to,  to,  of,  of,  of,  to,  of,  in, for,  in.

The secret of work - 3


1.            write a letter to the editor of a newspaper expressing your views on eradicating poverty.


The Editor,
Indian Express

                SUB:- Eradicating poverty…………reg.

                Man is advancing in civilization. New inventions have brought the world together as globalization. Even for once deadly diseases, today we have powerful medicines. We are postponing the death. Green Revolution brought introduced HYV seeds and the agro production doubled or tripled. Even then today 30% of Indians are below poverty line. Something has gone wrong.

                I hope some of my suggestions may help those who are in need of.

1.            One must have proper financial management of house.
2.            Unless one is financially sound, and has proper future planning, one should not go for   marriage or a child.
3.            One should avoid unwanted expenditures and ostensible life.

The government should also take some measures:

1.            It should implement family planning programme strictly.
2.            It should emphasize ‘ one or none’ scheme as Deng Ziao Ping did in China.
3.            Good incentives should be given to those who go for family planning operation.
4.            If govt. is writing off loans given, then the burden is falling on all. This leads to inflation.
5.            It should have proper measures taken against natural calamities.
6.            Instead of going for heavy dams, linking of rivers is better. More and more land comes un-          der cultivation, which can employ more people and food grains can be grown more.
7.            The govt. should plan such projects which generate more employment opportunities.

                Proper management system can only save families in turn the whole nation.

Yours faithfully,

The secret of work - 4

2.            Do you find Vivekananda’s plea for non-attachment convincing. Give reasons.
                Swami Vivekananda, a great soul, a great stalwart of India preached for non-attachment. 
                In this materialistic world, when man has become more and more selfish, more and more materialistic, may feel it impossible to relinquish non-attachment . He feels good only when he is in bondage, attached, and serving as a slave.
                It can be possible only with the saints, not with a common man.
                The more one possesses the more strong one is. Because he is more desirous, more greedy and more attached.
                The common man can never imagine non-attachment, because he is always in wants.  He has  family, children, desires, future hopes etc.  Most of his life runs for hand to mouth life.
                The great souls who are born with some purpose in life like Swami Vivekananda, Ramana Maharshi,  Adi Shankara can follow the path of non-attachment.

Bhagad Geeta  =  It is the celestial song told by Krishna to Arjuna,
Indriyas                =  Gnanendriyas = eye, nose, ear, tongue, skin
                                =  Karmendriyas= kamamu, krodhamu, lobhamu, madamu, matsaryamu
Non-attachment  =  though in the world, no concern with others. Just like a lotus comes from the                                        mud but there is no mud to it.
God  =  the all pervading, the Almighty, the Omnipresent who is manifested in all.

The Generation Gap

1Q          What are the aspects of the rebelliousness of adolescence ?
A             The rebellious attitude in adolescence is due to chilhood experiences. A child wants to do things in his own way which is not encouraged by the adult.
Adolescents want to do things freely even if it will be a failure. This activity of theirs is encouraged.
Even if they are well grown they will always be treated as children which they don’t like.
Their individual choices will not be given weight but to family presteige, name, and other things.
As far as parents dominate their identity is lost. That they don’t like.
Parents always dictate terms which they don’t want to follow.
Either in studies or in daily activities or in marriage elders choice dominates.
Elders always feel that their children, whatever be of their age, should follow the path which they lay.
Most of the works which they are asked to do, are not known to them. So their lack of knowledge leads to irritation.
Because of their friendship, there will be change in their attitude. If it is questioned they refuse to answer.
Sometimes their irritation on somebody changes over onto others without any proper reasoning.
Lack of completitiveness  makes them rebellious.
Some parents who have high expectations of their children always remind them those targets. So some youngsters who can not make their mark make their parents enemies.
Too much attention and care is not liked by the adolescents.
They feel that rebellious attitude can only keep up their position in their family. So they make threatening or violence as their weapon against parents.
The moral and the ethical values which the elders follow may not be  liked by the youngsters.
Thus there are many aspects why adolescents go rebellious.

2Q.      Why do some boys turn their irritation towards their mothers ?
A professional father wants his son to be a professionalist. He wants his son to do good at school, be in good records of his teachers, become a professional man like himself, and live upto the expectations of his family. Such a father tries to be reasonable, generous, and encouraging leader to his son. These attitudes of the father  make it difficult for the son to feel conscious anger towards him or to rebel. To hit his father or even shout at him would be almost inconceivable. So most of such boys remain respectful towards their fathers and shift all their irritation towards their mothers.

3Q.         Why does ‘school failure’ occur ?
A.            ‘School failure’ is today’s burning problem. There are many reasons for this.
                At school level, student’s mind is not so matured. Single mindedness is more. Whatever is taught is learnt well.
                In adolescence, he starts analyzing the utility of each subject according to his state of mind. He feel that they are not worth reading. Suddenly he stops learning.
                At university level, if the student is not clever enough, he gains a fear of high competition and suspects himself if he may not do good.
                Whatever be the parents’ ambitions of a student, they pressurize them on their son and expect high gains of achievement. 
                If the student is dull, cannot reach to the expectations of his parents, out of his inefficiency hates studies and creates revenge on his elders.
                There are someother factors also which lead to school failure. They are, teaching is not interesting and encouraging;  the school atmosphere may not be good;  financial problems;  lack of good encouragement;  friends circle may not be good; and so on.

The generation gap
4Q          Answer  -  see Q1

5Q          What are the three principal elements that go to make up the identity an  individual finally achieves.
A.            Advance of the civilization, technical inventions, and scientific discoveries are rich for research. Here an adolescent is finding a purpose of studying and a reason to continue his studies. He can easily guess what will be his future if he takes up such and such course. He is sure of his future. He is sure of what identity he is going to gain.

Write all the answers together.

1Q          What are the dos and don’ts for parents in rearing up children ?
A.            This is the age of globalization. The world is turning into a global village. The child born in the present age is faster in decisions,  is seeing a lot of things which were impossible to parents, 20 years back. The old traditional way of bringing up children is out dated. Today’s child can grasp things fast.

Parents should not;
put targets and persuade them to achieve their goals;
impose their beliefs, customs, etc on the youngsters;
expect high ideals or goals in the youngsters;

Parents should;
Guide the children to do things in a better way;
Always help children to solve their problems;
Be a complementary in child’s life but not a dictator.

2Q.         Write about the ways in which the generation gap can be bridged.
A             Marx said, “ Negation of negation.”
                According to this one generation negates the ideas, beliefs etc. of its previous generation. It is because
[a]          of knowledge gap.
[b]          less traditional and conventional than the previous generation
[c]           latest infra structure available to do things in a fine way than the previous one,
[d]          less commitment towards even primary things,
[e]          more materialistic than idealistic,
[f]           availability of more resources than once,
[g]          wide range of choice to  select
[h]          educational influence
[i]            technological progress etc.

                The best way to bridge the two generations is 
1.            the older generation should change its frame to understand the next generation,
2.            the older generation should get rid of their egos,
3.            the older generation should relinquish their feelings that they are elder, so they are to be obeyed,
4.            the older generation should realize that most of the things which are seeing now at the end of their lives is the beginning point to the young,
5.            the struggle to survive is high today than in those days,
6.            as a child comes up  to adolescence he should be treated as a friend,
The generation gap

7.            the young  will understand if said in a convincing and logical way than by force,
8.            the young will have some preconceived notions which should be gotten rid off slowly but not abruptly,
9.            the present ones do not have  childhood. From third year onwards they are sent to school. Whenever they get holidays, immediately they are sent to some sort of coaching. So they do not have time to enrich human values.
10.          if both mother and father are earning members there will be less chances for interaction. Years pass but they cannot come together.
11.          most of the things which were free to the previous generation, have become commodities in this generation. Eg. Water  
                If all these things are considered by the elders and understood in a sympathetic way the gap can be lessened between the generations. If needed they should come down one step to give a helping hand to raise the present ones from various crises and protect them from this mad race.








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